Cites and Notes for the SUSPS Overview Section


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Cites and notes

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1 Sierra Club website population section as of July, 2003, frequently asked questions.
2 U.S. Census Bureau,
3 Population Environment Balance.
4 Population Reference Bureau World Population Data Sheet, July, 2003.
5 U.S. Census Bureau year 2000 middle-series projections.
6 Rockefeller: Cited in David Simcox, "The Commission on Population Growth and the American Future: Twenty Years Later: A Lost Opportunity," in the Social Contract (Summer 1992): 197. Also see Summary of commission recommendations.
7 World Resources Institute Report 1994-1995, People and the Environment. Order online.
8 Census Bureau state projections, 1995-2025.
9 California population projections, from County Population Projections with Age, Sex and Race/Ethnic Detail, July 1, 1990-2040 in 10-year Increments, California State Department of Finance, Demographic Research Unit.
10 President's Council on Sustainable Development, Task force Reports, Introduction.
11 Demographer Leon Bouvier, Tulane University, "U.S. Overpopulation Facts".
12 National Center for Health Statistics news release, February 12, 2002, Women Are Having More Children, New Report Shows Teen Births Continue to Decline, referencing the document Births: Final Data for 2000. NVSR Volume 50, No. 5. 104 pp. (PHS) 2002-1120.
13 U.N. Population Division 2002 Annex Tables.
14 National Center for Health Statistics - Monthly/National Vital Statistics Reports December 19, 1996.
15 National Center for Health Statistics - National Center for Health Statistics Monthly/National Vital Statistics Reports 23(19), 1997.
16 How fertility changes across immigrant generations Public Policy Institute of California, April, 2002; and Understanding the Future of Californians' Fertility: the Role of Immigrants Laura Hill and Hans Johnson, Public Policy Institute of California, April, 2002;
17 How to Get There From Here: The Demographic Route to Optimal Population Size, Leon F. Bouvier, December 1989, NPG Forum series.
18 National Audubon Society Population and Habitat Campaign Fact sheet on population momentum.
19 National Center for Health Statistics report: U.S. Birth Rate Reaches Record Low; Births: Preliminary Data for 2002. NVSR Vol. 51, No. 11. 20 pp. (PHS) 2003-1120.
20 National Center for Health Statistics report: Fertility, Family Planning, and Women's Health: New Data From the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth, Vital and Health Statistics, Series 23, Number 19, May, 1997.
21 Population-Environment Balance, Population and Environment, Vol. 13, No. 1, Fall 1991. pp. 45-54.
22 Quality of Life in the 21st Century, Leon Bouvier, May 1996, Center for Immigration Studies.
23 "Shifting Shares of the Population and U.S. Fertility", Leon F. Bouvier, Population and Environment, Vol. 13, No. 1, Fall 1991. pp. 45-54.
24 National Center for Health Statistics report: Revised Birth and Fertility Rates for the United States, 2000 and 2001, NVSR Vol. 51, No. 4.
25 National Center for Health Statistics report: Deaths: Final Data for 2000, NVSR Vol. 5, No. 15.
26 U.S. Census Bureau 1990 and 2000 decennial census. (The average annual U.S. growth during the 1990s was 3.27 million. This result is arrived at by subtracting the 1990 Census count (248,709,873) from the 2000 Census count (281,421,906) and dividing by 10.)
27 U.S. Census Bureau International Database, Summary demographic data.
28 Ecoscience: Population, Resources, Environment, Ehrlich and Holdren, 1977, W.H. Freeman & Co. San Francisco. pp. 109-110.
From Chapter 4: "If the NRR [net reproductive rate] in the United States remained equal to 1 for some seventy-five years, and if there were no migration, the population would stop growing at the end of that time." "It takes about the average life expectancy for the age composition of a population to stabilize..." Since the average life expectancy of the United States in 1973 was 75.3, it would take about seventy-five years for the population of the United States to reach a stable age composition once the vital rates become constant. And with NRR = 1, population growth would not cease until the age composition stabilized.
29 Population: an Introduction to Concepts and Issues, John R. Weeks; Wadsworth, 1992, ISBN 0534553052 (hardcover) ISBN 0-534-17346-2. (579p, $88.00).
30 Population Reference Bureau.
31 Center for Immigration Studies backgrounder: Immigrants in the United States - 2002, a Snapshot of America's Foreign-Born Population, November, 2002.
32 Negative Population Growth population facts.
33 Methodology and Assumptions for the Population Projections of the United States: 1999 to 2100, Frederick W. Hollmann, Tammany J. Mulder, and Jeffrey E. Kallan, U.S. Census Bureau Population Division Working Paper No. 38, January 2000. Calculations from Table F, Population and Dependency Ratios per 100 Persons, four Series, 1990 to 2100. (570,954,000 middle series 2100 population - 291,444,000 July 2003 population = 279,510,000 additional growth by 2100. 570,954,000 - 377,444,000 million zero migration population in 2100 = 193,510,000 growth by 2100 due to immigration. This is 69.2% or approximately 70%).
34 There is No Global Population Problem, article by Garrett Hardin, 1989.
35 The Population Explosion, Paul R. and Anne H. Ehrlich; Simon and Schuster, 1990, ISBN 0-671-68984-3. (320p, $19).
36 Perpetual Growth - The Next Dragon Facing Biology Teachers, Garrett Hardin, The Social Contract, Fall, 1994.
37 How Many Americans Can the Earth Support? by Dr. David Pimentel, Cornell University.
38 Overview of Annual Immigration , 2001, Federation for American Immigration Reform
39 Sierra Club 1999 population policy.
40 Statistical Yearbook Department of Homeland Security Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services (formerly Immigration and Naturalization Service)

41 Immigration in a Changing Economy, Kevin F. McCarthy and George Vernez, 1997, RAND Corporation
42 The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration, James P. Smith and Barry Edmonston, 1997, National Academy of Sciences; see overview.
43 ProjectUSA rankings of countries by purchasing power.
44 Explanation of Exponential growth and the rule of 70.
45 Congressional testimony of Barbara Jordan, Chair, U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform, Marcy 29, 1995.
46 Summary Recommendations of the U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform, Federation for American Immigration Reform.
47 U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform, 1990-1997.
48 Summary Demographic Data, Federation for American Immigration Reform.
49 United Nations Population Division 2000 Revision Population Database.
50 An Ecolate View of the Human Predicament, Garrett Hardin, 1985.
51 Intergenerational Justice, Fred Elbel, The Social Contract, Winter, 2002.
52 U.S. Census Bureau International database.
53 Sierra Club Global Population and Environment frequently asked questions.
54 The Numbers Game - Confronting Growth and the Environment, by Jim Motavalli, E/The Environmental Magazine, January/February, 2004. (Read the complete article.)


Causes of U.S. population growth

The legacy of U.S. overpopulation we are leaving to future generations does not have to happen if we recognize and address the causes of our population growth.

Back to:
      U.S. population growth.
      U.S. birth rates and their relationship to population growth.
      U.S. immigration and population growth.
      Global and local solutions and the road to U.S. population stabilization.
      U.S. population numbers, graphs and explanations.
Also see:
      Population terms.

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